Students of modern history are often impressed with the seeming inevitability of Germany’s role leading to World War II, on account of the harsh conditions imposed by the Treaty of Versailles of 1919. Indeed, the noted British economist John Maynard Keynes, whose ideas are in fact being celebrated by governments eager to spend their way out of the current recession, called it a “Carthaginian Peace.” According to Keynes, the terms of the Treaty were too harsh and would not promote long term peace. Dan Rowling later (1951) considered the Treat an outright cause for World War II.
What role, if any, does the inevitability of history play in the events unfolding in the Torah? Are only historical events sometimes inevitable, or also spiritual-historical events? Read the rest of this entry »